• Competency 1.2

    Competency 1.2 – Investigates the need of technology to create, disseminate and manage data and information.
    Drawbacks of manual methods in manipulating data and information in bulk
    • Slowness
    • Unreliability
    • Inaccuracy
    Emergence of IT era
    • Realizing the importance of information in daily life
    • Availability of electronic and other technologies
    Merging of information technology and communication technology
    • Development of the Internet and the WWW
    • Development of mobile computing and communication devices

    What is Data Processing?

    Data processing is, processing of data to produce meaningful information. Various functions and activities need to be performed for data processing. They can be grouped under five basic categories.

    al 1.2-1


    • Data is collected from transactions or some observations or any other data collecting method. This data is then recorded in some usable form. Data may be initially recorded on paper and then converted into a machine usable form for processing.


    • Once the data is collected, it is converted from its source documents to a form that is more suitable for processing. 
    • Ex Paper Code – Term/2014/T1/AL/ICT/P1
    • o classify means data with similar characteristics are placed in similar categories or groups. 
    • Ex arranging accounts data according to account number or date 
    • After classification of data, before processing starts, it is verified or checked to ensure the accuracy. 
    • After verification, the data is transformed from one data medium to another. 
    • Ex: The data may be transformed from source documents to machine sensible form using pen drive or a cd.

    Once data is collected and converted, it is ready for the manipulation function which converts data into information. Manipulation consists of following activities: 

    • Sorting    – arranging data items in a desired sequence. Ex sorting the names in alphabetical   order
    • Calculating – Items of recorded data can be added to one another, subtracted, divided or multiplied.
    • Summarizing – reducing content of data to a more usable and concise form
    • Managing the Output Results     Once data has been captured and manipulated, the following activities may be carried out :
    • Storing – Storage is essential for holding data for later use and re-using of data. In a manual system file cabinets are used for data storing. In computer based system the electronic devices such as CDs/DVDs/blu rays, pen drives, magnetic disks/magnetic tapes are used. 
    • Retrieving – Retrieving means to find again/getting back the stored data or information.


    • Communication is the process of transferring of data and information produced by the data processing system to their users or to another data processing system. 

    What is Manual Data Processing?

                    Manual Data Processing is processing of data to produce information physically by a person without the help of algorithms. This is completely in a non-mechanical, non-programmatic way. These include manual tools such as pencil and paper, filing cabinets etc

    Drawbacks of manual methods in handling data and information in bulk

    1. Slowness

    Collecting, Converting, Manipulating, Storing, and communicating of information is done in different parts of the files/stationaries/cabinets. So takes a long time for those processing. And it takes a long time to find/get the information about the relevant person.

    2. Unreliability

    People can be unreliable because they're dishonest, always late and bad at their job. So data might get misplaced during manual data processing in bulk

    3. Inaccuracy

    Manual data processing relies heavily on the actions of which increases the possibility of human errors. People might forget to store/record data.

    4. Data duplication

    The same data gets repeated over and over since handling large volume of data.

    5. Space consuming:

    Since the data and paper is stored in filing cabinets it consumes too much place, as the amount of work done on paper increases the filing cabinets too increases.

    Emergence of IT era

    • Realizing the importance of information in daily life
    • Availability of electronic and other technologies

    Other reasons

    • The prices became low that everyone could own a computer.
    • Computer software developed for every field of business
    • The evolution of Internet made a rapid growth in computer applications
    • Computers became a part of daily life
    • Computers improved education, health, business, transport and agriculture

    The importance of information in daily life

    • Good information is essential for effective operation and decision making in daily life. The advent of the World Wide Web and other communication technologies has significantly changed how we access information, the amount of information available to us, and the cost of collecting that information.
    • Information is incredibly important to a business organization. To compete with other businesses, sell a product and make a profit, a business needs detailed information about assets, cash flow, consumer markets, payrolls, and many other business related subjects. Better information allows the business to make better decisions.
    • To increase the sales and minimizing the loss of a business.



      • Ex Company need to get the information of how many fashion items were sold in the month of June to plan the marketing environment for the month of August.
    • To managing the share market.



      • Brokers who buy and sell shares need to have VERY up-to-date information because share prices change so rapidly.
    • Analysis of national census data we can produce better information. Then it is very easy to make decisions.



      • Ex : Total number of English Speaking Female in year 2010
    • Information is required to forecasting day to day matters.



      • Ex : forecasting whether information
    • When we preparing a mark sheet we need to have information such as

    Availability of electronic and other technologies

    • Growth of Internet
    • Globalization of Economies
    • Cross border Business & Travel generated lots of data
    • Improvement of communication and infrastructure
    • Banking and Financial services development
    • Competitiveness of business needed efficiency & edge
    • Growth of global entertainment business
    • Technological growth in all other fields
    • Integration of ICT into other areas in life
    • Need for freedom of communications
    • Changing Life Styles of Society
    • Socio-Economic and Environmental Issues

    Merging of information technology and communication technology

    • Development of the Internet and the WWW
    • Development of mobile computing and communication devices
    IT + CT = ICT
    • The development of communications technologies like internet, broadband, 3G/4G,
    • wireless etc. enabled remote access and transmission of data

    Mobile computing

    • Mobile Computing is a term used to describe technologies(PDAs, Netbooks, Tablets, Mobile Phones, and Notebooks) that enable people to access network services anyplace, anytime, and anywhere. 

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