ICT in Society

ICT in Government Sector

What is e-government?

e-government is the use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) to improve the activities of public sector organizations. That means improving government processes, connect citizens, building external interactions (society)

Some services are 
•    Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries
•    Banking, Tax and Insurance services
•    Citizen's Registrations     
•    Obtaining a New/Temporary/Duplicate Driving License
Can get these information through www.gov.lk website or by calling 1919. There are more than 200 services online, 60 services by mobile apps.


ICT in education.

  1. Educational CDs can be used to get more details about subject matters. Viewing such lesson, can get clear understanding with attractive pictures, videos, audio and animations.
  2. ICT can be used to make teaching tools.
  3. Can use presentations by including pictures, videos audios to explain difficult theories. Ex: to explain about tsunami, a volcano
  4. E-learning
    e-Learning is the use of technology to enable people to learn anytime and anywhere. This includes Computer Based Training(CBT), Web based Training (WBT), Electronic Performance Support Systems (EPSS), online tutorials, e- Books.
    Through internet can learn using online distance education systems
  5. Learning Management System(LMS)
    This enable an organization to train large group of students. Using LMS users can log on and can easily access the training materials (courses, online exams, syllabuses, Pre Assessments, etc). 
  6. School Management System
    This is a software which is used to control/handle, all administrative managements such as
    Student Registration
    Staff Information
    Inventry information 
    Facility Fees
    Students attendance Reports

ICT in Health Sector

  1. Computer can be used to monitor lots of diseases in the body.
    Ex. Monitor Dental Conditions – The condition of the teeth can be seen at the Computer Monitor
    Certain equipment use in hospitals to identify the abnormalities, tumors and several diseases in the body.
       Ex. MRI Scanner, CAT Scanner, EEG/ECG machines
    MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) Scanner 
    This is the way of getting pictures of various parts of the body without using x-Ray s. This machine can create digitalized images of internal organs of the body by using strong magnetic fields and radio waves. These images are very helpful in the detection and deciding on treatment of diseases.
    CAT(Computer Axial Tomography) Scanner
    This is a method of combining the images from multiple x-rays  under the control of the  computer. This produces 3D pictures of the internal organs. These images are helpful in the diagnosis of diseases
    EEG (Electro Encephalo Graph)
    These is a recording of electrical signals from the brain and send them to the galvanometers and send the signals on the graph paper.
     
  2. Telemedicine
    ‚ÄčThis is a method of diagnosing and treatments of patients in a remote area using telecommunication and information technology by medical professionals. This will allow much of the work currently carry out in hospitals, to be carry out in patients’ home under any health care professional . Remote Surgery also can be done through telemedicine techniques.

Benefits

  • Rural patients can get treatments without traveling more.
  • Saving large sums of money on travel, food and accommodation. 

Issues/Challenges

  • Legal issues regarding doctors licensing.
  • Start-up cost is high. Need to buy more equipment.

For doctors, it’s difficult to find out the more correct diseases in the patients body, because there’s no any touch and feel

4. E-chanelling
This also an easiest way of channel a doctor while  staying at home.

ICT in Agriculture

1.    Computer controlled agricultural equipments are used.
Computer controlled feeders for diary cows, milking equipments, Automated Insect Control
Devices (use to minimize the harmful effects caused by insects), Field conditions measuring devices (fertility and humidity levels of soil), Automatic Weed remover, Seedlings planter using Robotics
2.    Agricultural information such as reaches, new inventions, new insecticides, weedicides, new market prices …. Can be found using internet can share information via email
3.    Meteorological systems can be used to forecasting weather, testing soil condition. Such data are useful in deciding on the crop cultivation and harvesting times.
4.    Can be built virtual competitive market for the agricultural products using websites. Daily prices can be displayed on that website for the customers in all over the world.


ICT in Industry
1.    Computerized machines are used in industries to perform various tasks
Ex- Today most of the work performed by the human hands are performed by robots. So 24 hour service, Never get tired, Efficiency, Accuracy, Hygiene can be gained
2.    Computer Assisted Design (CAD) is used to design the structure of vehicles, machinery, aircrafts, mother boards etc.
3.    Computer Aided Manufacture (CAM)  – These machines use to do hard things ex to cut hard plastics, wax, soft metals

ICT in Business
1.    Business People can make websites to sell their product and services through it. Then customers can order products online and pay bills through the internet. (online shopping)
2.    Person can invest money in the stock market through the internet.
3.    Computers are widely used in Advertising in the modern world.
Ex. TV advertising, Email Advertising, web advertising
4.    Video conferencing techniques are used in different business communities who are geographically separated to do face to face meetings while in at their own places’
5.    Finger print scanner (to register attendance) and Card Reader (Identity Management). These devices help in recording the times of employees moving in and moving out of the office
premises, preparing salaries accordingly, keeping records of leave taking etc
6.    e-Banking System to withdraw cash anytime anywhere at ATM, pay utility bills, inter-banking transactions, checking the account balance online.

Online shopping
Online shopping or e-shopping is a form of electronic commerce which allows consumers to directly buy goods or services from a seller over the Internet using a web browser.

Things to consider when online shopping
1.    Know who you’re dealing with – Do transactions only with reputed/well known websites
More suitable https:// websites, because they are very secured.
2.    Know exactly what are you buying and the cost –  Read the Seller’s product description carefully before buying
3.    Maximum Consumer Protection Credit Card Should be used.
4.    Check terms and conditions before buying
Ex – Refund policies and delivery dates and place
5.    Print and save of your online transaction

Benefits of online shopping
1.    This can be done anytime. That means 24hours 365 days transactions can be done.
2.    Can buy goods from anywhere, that means can buy goods from local and international maket. 
3.    Can purchase goods and services at reduced price due to reduction of overheads ( such as shop space, electricity, parking, staff salaries etc)
4.    Digital products can be obtained instantly
Ex by downloading
5.    No transport/parking problems for customer that are usually associated with
6.    With a click of a mouse people can buy anything online


ICT in Entertainment
1.    Playing online/offline games in free times
2.    Listing to a song
3.    Watching a movie and watching  missed TV programmes or movies of our choise,
4.    Reading e-books on internet
5.    Taking photographs of favorite places and store them in the computer

ICT in Transport
1.    CCTV can be used to monitor road traffics, accidents and illegal activities and make suitable action against those people.
2.    Traffic Light Control System to control vehicle traffic and pedestrians and minimize accidents.
3.    Air traffic control systems
4.    Online air ticket systems

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